He basically dragged, kicking and screaming, an entire society toward modernization of its military, government, behavior, and even its appearance. He introduced a European culture that was foreign to the Russians and made demands upon both the people and nobility that at least attempted to make them more effective and more efficient. Peter understood that European technology, and the culture which drove it, were an avenue to national power. To this end, he plotted a modernization strategy for Russia which would ultimately make her the greatest power in Europe.
Islamic feminism and Sharia In the early Middle Agesan early effort to improve the status of women occurred during the early reforms under Islamwhen women were given greater rights in marriage, divorce, and inheritance. Madrasah Islam made the education of women a sacred obligation  Women, far from being barred from study of Islam's holy book, were urged to learn to read it as were men.
Women in Islam played an important role in the foundations of many Islamic educational institutionssuch as Fatima al-Fihri 's founding of the University of Al Karaouine in This continued through to the Ayyubid dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries, when mosques and madrasahs were established in Damascus26 of which were funded by women through the Waqf charitable trust or trust law system.
Half of all the royal patrons for these institutions were also women. This was especially the case for learned and scholarly families, who wanted to ensure the highest possible education for both their sons and daughters.
Female education in the Islamic world was inspired by Muhammad's wives: Khadijaha successful businesswoman, and Aishaa renowned hadith scholar and military leader. According to a hadith attributed to Muhammadhe praised the women of Medina because of their desire for religious knowledge: While there were no legal restrictions on female education, some men did not approve of this practice, such as Muhammad ibn al-Hajj d.
At that point women come, too, to hear the readings; the men sit in one place, the women facing them. It even happens at such times that some of the women are carried away by the situation; one will stand up, and sit down, and shout in a loud voice.
Islamic economics in the world Women under Islamic law could enter into contracts, buy and sell property, sue in court on their own behalf without the need for a man to represent them, engage in commerce, endow trusts, etc. The labor force in the Caliphate were employed from diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds, while both men and women were involved in diverse occupations and economic activities.
In comparison, female property rights and wage labour were relatively uncommon in Europe until the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. Rape, on the other hand, is a criminal assault offense which does not require four eyewitnesses as if it were a charge of adultery. However, several Muslim-majority countries have addressed rape under the rubric of adultery, requiring it to have four eyewitnesses; this has been the subject of international controversy.
Women could serve as witnesses in court but her testimony worth half that of a man. As mentioned in the Quran "Call in to witness from among your men two witnesses; but if there are not two men, then one man and two women of such as you approve as witnesses, so that if one of the two women forgets, the other woman may remind her"  Divorce Law[ edit ] In Islamic law, men only have to utter "I divorce you," or " Talaq " three times in the presence of his wife to officially initiate divorce; nonetheless, there is a required waiting period of three months, and if in that time the wife is discovered to be pregnant, the divorce is still not effective until after she has delivered.
Women have always had the right to initiate divorce in Islamic law, but have to go to court through a judicial process and prove grounds for separation, which include cruelty, lack of provision, desertion, impotence of the husband, and other actionable grounds.
Women could initiate divorce without any of those grounds by a different route called khula'a wife-initiated divorce which involved returning the mahr dowry or bride-giftthat the husband had paid to her upon marriage. Upon any divorce initiated by the husband, the ex-wife is entitled to payment of the remainder or "delayed" portion of that mahr.
Marriage laws[ edit ] The Quran clearly allows polygamy up to 4 wives as mentioned: But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice]. All of those scholars from whom we acquired knowledge unanimously agreed that it is permissible for a father to give his minor daughter in marriage if he arranges her to someone who is compatible, and it is permissible for him to do that even if she is reluctant.
Peter the Great relaxed the custom of youth subordination, but not that of women. Only men, however, had the ability to end a marriage, by forcing their wives into nunneries.
An adulterous wife could be sentenced to force labour while men who murdered their wives were merely flogged. This decree also ensured that women had a separate economy from their husbands, although it should be noted that they could not inherit their property until they married.
In all of the regions, the laws also gave men substantial powers over lives, property and bodies of their wives. The position of women varied greatly. In Pagan Scandinavia prior to the introduction of Christianity, women in Scandinavia had a relatively free and independent position.
Women had religious authority and were active as priestesses gydja and oracles sejdkvinna ;  they were active within art as poets skalder  and rune mastersand as merchants and medicine women.
A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry.
Sweden was given its first attempt of a national code by the Magnus Erikssons landslag in In medieval Christian Sweden, properties owned by the wife was merged into her husband's household and transferred under his care.
This was similar to other countries within Europe where property was female property forfeited to the male during their marriage. A wife's property and land also could not be taken by the husband without her family's consent but neither could the wife.
This mean a woman could not transfer her property to her husband without her family or kinsman's consent either. The same law terms was applied in Sweden-Finland in accordance with the Civil Code of Ireland[ edit ] Ancient Irish laws generally portray a patriarchal and patrilineal society in which the rules of inheritance were based on agnatic descent.
The Brehon law excepted women from the ordinary course of the law.Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
Peter the Great's bridge opening around 2 a.m. during the white nights in St. Petersburg. The best time to see St.
Petersburg is in summer, especially so from the end of June until the beginning of July, during the famous "white nights.". He studied the English techniques of city-building he would later use to great effect at Lawrence Jay. ed. Russia in the era of Peter the Great. Even though Peter the Great was a significant leader in Russian history, many people disliked him for being cruel and tyrannical.
Any rebellions, no matter how small could end with mass executions. Peter had a liking to alcohol and he would use his enormous power for his entertainment. World History Quizzes (Ch. 4) Ivan the Terrible's cruelty was aimed mainly at.. How did Peter the Great gain territory for Russia along the Baltic Sea?
Peter the Great is one of the prime examples of what the force of a single individual can achieve. He basically dragged, kicking and screaming, an entire society toward modernization of its military, government, behavior, and even its appearance.