From here, you can skip directly to the list of linked sites. Alternatively, you can go to the bibliographic note first. On the Existence of the First Cause This is the easy part.
Argument from Motion Our senses prove that some things are in motion.
Things move when potential motion becomes actual motion. Only an actual motion can convert a potential motion into an actual motion.
Nothing can be at once in both actuality and potentiality in the same respect i. Therefore nothing can move itself. Therefore each thing in motion is moved by something else. The sequence of motion cannot extend ad infinitum. Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be God.
Argument from Efficient Causes We perceive a series Aquinas 2nd argument efficient causes of things in the world.
Nothing exists prior to itself. Therefore nothing [in the world of things we perceive] is the efficient cause of itself. If a previous efficient cause does not exist, neither does the thing that results the effect. Therefore if the first thing in a series does not exist, nothing in the series exists.
If the series of efficient causes extends ad infinitum into the past, for then there would be no things existing now. That is plainly false i. Therefore efficient causes do not extend ad infinitum into the past. Therefore it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.
Argument from Possibility and Necessity Reductio argument We find in nature things that are possible to be and not to be, that come into being and go out of being i.
Assume that every being is a contingent being. For each contingent being, there is a time it does not exist.
Therefore it is impossible for these always to exist. Therefore there could have been a time when no things existed.
Therefore at that time there would have been nothing to bring the currently existing contingent beings into existence.
Therefore, nothing would be in existence now. We have reached an absurd result from assuming that every being is a contingent being. Therefore not every being is a contingent being. Therefore some being exists of its own necessity, and does not receive its existence from another being, but rather causes them.
This all men speak of as God. Argument from Gradation of Being There is a gradation to be found in things: The maximum in any genus is the cause of all in that genus.
Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.The Cosmological Argument (Aquinas) STUDY. PLAY.
Who is Thomas Aquinas? Born in Italy in AD Catholic Priest Supports Aquinas' 2nd Way. Who/what does Gottfried Leibniz's argument of Sufficient Reason support? Aquinas' 2nd Way. What was Aquinas' 3rd Way called? What does this mean?
Using this thinking, Aquinas concludes his second way for the argument of the existence of god by stating it is necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of God.
Not unlike any other argument, Aquinas’ second way of efficient cause, comes with criticism. Aquinas and his “Moral Argument” Aquinas’ “moral argument” might not be what you expect to find.
Thomas Aquinas is famous for – among other things – his five arguments for Christian theism, arguments called “the five ways” (quinque viae).
The first way is the argument from the unmoved mover. The second way is the argument from. Aquinas’ second way This argument seems to include the following two premises: If something were the efﬁcient cause of itself, it would be prior to itself.
Nothing can be prior to itself. The next key premise comes in the next sentence: Nothing is the efﬁcient cause of itself. Aquinas’ second proof for the existence of God is a sound argument.
Aquinas’ argument about the efficient/agent cause is philosophically persuasive because it is easy to apply to things. The Fourth Way: Argument from Gradation of Being There is a gradation to be found in things: some are better or worse than others. Predications of degree require reference to the “ uttermost” case (e.g., a thing is said to be hotter according as it more nearly resembles that which is hottest).