Review of recent research findings suggests that women have redefined their relationship to the family so that their personal goals and interests can be met. Only a generation ago, most young women planned their adult lives around marriage and full-time homemaking. Barbie dolls, Seventeen magazine, and Father Knows Best fed their dream of a home in the suburbs, a white picket fence, and several loving children. Women's participation within the family has shifted dramatically since then.
Messenger Congregational membership in the United States is slowly declining. Data from the General Social Survey show that 17 percent of Americans attended a religious gathering weekly in the s.
Bythis number had dropped to 11 percent. They also raise questions about where, if at all, people experience the sacred. With architectural historian Alice Friedman and photographer Randall ArmorI located and documented more than 50 hidden sacred spaces in the greater Boston area alone.
Tucked around the edges in Boston — in hospital chapels, meditation rooms in universities, and prayer rooms in airports, nursing homes and a range of other institutions — these spaces are open to the public.
Initial glimpses While conducting research for a book about religion and spirituality in health care, I visited Changing nature of the family over hospital chapels, meditation and prayer rooms.
I began a conversation with Alice and architect Karla Johnson, who built an interfaith space at Tufts, several years ago. We hoped to photograph and share these spaces with a broader audience as a next step in our conversation.
Karla became ill and died inand Alice and I decided to continue these efforts in her memory. As a first step, photographer Randy Armor and I started driving around the city last summer photographing as many chapels, meditation and prayer rooms as we could find in institutions focused on things other than religion and spirituality.
In the past nine months we have located close to 80 such spaces and photographed just over Even as congregations decline, we learned, chapels, meditation and prayer rooms remain, and people are eager to talk with us about them.
Evolving over time We found these spaces in hospitals, nursing homes, colleges and universities, the port, the airport, public parks, malls, state prisons, cemeteries and even a local museum.
Some are standalone, while others are a part of larger buildings. Some were designed by well-known architects, while others were created informally by people desiring a small retreat.
Chapel at New England Seafarers Mission. A small prayer space at the New England Seafarers Mission in the port, in contrast, has been moved and changed several times.
Today it consists of a cushion for someone in a kneeling position, behind a movable screen under a tapestry of the Last Supper. While some of the spaces we found look much as they did when constructed, others have evolved over time to accommodate people from a range of religious traditions.
At Brandeis Universityfor example, the original chapels were built in the early s for Protestants, Catholics and Jews.
Today there are spaces for Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist and other students in various areas across campus.
Chapel at Northeastern University. Designed by architects Monica Ponce de Leon and Nader Tehrani and opened inthe area was designed to be flexible and accessible to multiple religious practitioners.
Negotiating religious differences Many of the spaces we located are utilized by diverse people and groups. Designers and users make a range of decisions to try to accommodate everyone.
Flexibility is evident in many health care organizations where religious symbols have increasingly been removed from traditional chapels and furniture put on wheels to be as versatile as possible. At Massachusetts General Hospitalthe original chapel, which opened in April 25,was created through the work of Rev.
William Lawrence, retired bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts. In the late s, he sent more than 1, letters to friends of the hospital asking for support to build it.
A cross in the early chapel was removed and symbols and objects added for practice in a broader range of religious traditions. A Muslim prayer room was opened around the corner from the chapel in and a mihrab, or special niche that indicates the direction of Mecca, was added in Verses from the Koran in English and Arabic hang in the Muslim prayer room, which is used by visitors throughout the day.
Friday prayers are held in a larger conference room nearby. Chapel at Massachusetts Correctional Institution, Concord. Constructed in the s, a sunken building housing the chapels sits at the center of Massachusetts Correctional Institution in Concord.
A Catholic chapel, Protestant chapel and Muslim prayer room inside are staffed by full and part-time chaplains from Catholic, Protestant, Muslim and Jewish backgrounds. Everyday uses While formal religious services continue to take place in a few of these settings — especially prison chapels — the majority are mostly often used as places of quiet respite.
As we traveled around the city, we saw nurses stop into hospital chapels as their shifts change and family members use them as quiet places to cry.
Chapel at Logan International Airport, Boston. And we saw many people come through the chapel in the Prudential Center Mall in the midst of their working days.
Some of these spaces are multi-faith, while others are Catholic. Some are mostly empty, while others — especially those in prisons — seem to often be full.Dedicated to expanding the public's knowledge of nature and environmental science, to promote greater understanding of Midwestern environmental issues and how those issues relate to the rest of the world.
The dramatic shift in the role of women in Irish society over the past 50 years has been reflected in changing kinds of familial and relationship issues, a leading relationship expert has said.
blurring of work and family, and considers the effect of gender differences as careers unfold over the life span.
This paper begins by briefly reviewing past research on gender, careers, and the changing. Changing Nature of the Family over Past 50 Years Essay The Cratchit Family, and How They Exemplify Conditions of the Poor in the Victorian Era Essay Examine reasons for change in divorce rate since Essay.
Changing Nature takes place about a month after Tempting Fate concludes. We see the continuing riff between families of the Immortal Descendants and this time we are taken to medieval Paris.
The amount of research in this series is one of my favorite things about them. to protect the family’s privacy.) Understandably, her parents were terriﬁed.
Their pediatrician has risen over the last three de-cades, although jobs have been lost and wages have remained stagnant. More Americans have The changing nature of work and technology can .