Juries are most common in common law adversarial-system jurisdictions.
For large- scale applications of information technology, governments have been called upon to apply procedures like those commonly used in major industrial and social projects.
Thus, commitment might have to be deferred pending dissemination and public discussion of independent environmental or social impact statements. Although organizations that use information technology might see this as interventionism, decision making and approval for major information technology applications may nevertheless become more widely representative.
Closed- system versus open- system thinking Computer- based systems no longer comprise independent machines each serving a single location. The marriage of computing with telecommunications has produced multicomponent systems designed to support all elements of a widely dispersed organization.
The practice of information systems has matured since the early years when existing manual systems were automated largely without procedural change.
Developers now seek payback via the rationalization of existing systems and varying degrees of integration among previously separate functions. With the advent of strategic and interorganizational systems, economies are being sought at the level of industry sectors, and functional integration increasingly occurs across corporate boundaries.
Although programmers can no longer regard the machine as an almost entirely closed system with tightly circumscribed sensory and motor capabilities, many habits of closed- system thinking remain. Human activities in particular must be perceived as part of the system.
The focus must broaden from mere technology to technology in use. General systems thinking leads information technologists to recognize that relativity and change must he accommodated. Today, an artifact may be applied in multiple cultures where language, religion, laws, and customs differ.
Over time, the original context may change. For example, models for a criminal justice system - one based on punishment and another based on redemption - may alternately dominate social thinking.
Therefore, complex systems must be capable of adaptation. Blind acceptance of technological and other imperatives Contemporary utilitarian society seldom challenges the presumption that what can be done should be done.
Although this technological imperative is less pervasive than people generally think, societies nevertheless tend to follow where their technological capabilities lead.
Related tendencies include the economic imperative what can be done more efficiently should be and the marketing imperative any effective demand should be met. An additional tendency might be called the "information imperative," the dominance of administrative efficiency, information richness, and rational decision making.
However, the collection of personal data has become so pervasive that citizens and employees have begun to object.
Complementary measures that may be needed to ameliorate its negative effects should also be considered. The potential impact of information technology is so great that it would be inexcusable for professionals to succumb blindly to the economic, marketing, information, technological, and other imperatives.
Yet several studies have found a surprising degree of identification by humans with computers. Educational institutions and staff training programs must identify these limitations; yet even this is not sufficient: The human- machine interface must reflect them. Systems must be designed so that users are required to continually exercise their own expertise, and system output should not be phrased in a way that implies unwarranted authority.
These objectives challenge the conventional outlook of system designers. Human opposition to robots Robots are agents of change and therefore potentially upsetting to those with vested interests. Of all the machines so far invented or conceived of, robots represent the most direct challenge to humans.
Vociferous and even violent campaigns against robotics should not be surprising. Beyond concerns of self interest is the possibility that some humans could be revulsed by robots, particularly those with humanoid characteristics.
Some opponents may be mollified as robotic behavior becomes more tactful. Another tenable argument is that by creating and deploying artifacts that are in some ways superior. System designers must anticipate a variety of negative reactions against their creations from different groups of stakeholders.
Much will depend on the number and power of the people who feel threatened - and on the scope of the change they anticipate. If, as Asimov speculates,9 a robot- based economy develops without equitable adjustments, the backlash could be considerable.
Such a rejection could involve powerful institutions as well as individuals. In one Asimov story, the US Department of Defense suppresses a project intended to produce the perfect robot- soldier.
Although even very powerful cartels might not be able to impede robotics for very long, its development could nevertheless be delayed or altered.
Information technologists need to recognize the negative perceptions of various stakeholders and manage both system design and project politics accordingly. The structuredness of decision making For five decades there has been little doubt that computers hold significant computational advantages over humans.
However, the merits of machine decision making remain in dispute.On Thursday, June 1, , the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued its long-awaited report on the management of the immigration court system by .
The mission of the Division of Purchasing (DOP) is to maximize value received by state agencies in the acquisition of property through fair, open, ethical, transparent competition. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Rule 6. Motions Practice, General Form of Memoranda, Motions, and Other Papers. Generally: Regarding Paper Size, Format, and Spacing.
All memoranda, motions, and other papers shall be printed or typed and reproduced by any duplicating or copying process which produces a clear black image on white paper. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. In January , the Attorney General referred to us the law of contempt of court for our examination with a .
Buy custom Courtroom Participation Paper essay paper cheap Within court systems, there are various individuals who take different responsibilities during the criminal trial process.
Some of these individuals include the prosecutor, Bailiff, judge and defense attorney.