Essays on human nature evil

Okrent Derrida and Heidegger: A Critical Reader, below, but the rest are new to this volume, and all are generally of an exceptional quality and from the leading contributors in the evolving field of Heidegger scholarship.

Essays on human nature evil

Since we cannot put the feeling of a passion into wordsHume identifies passions via their characteristic causes and effects. The cause of a passion is what calls up the passion: A cause can be subdivided into the subject itself e.

The object of a passion is what the passion is ultimately directed at: Both object and cause have a foundation in human nature: Hume's account relies on three mechanisms.

Essays on human nature evil

First, the "association of ideas": Second, the "association of impressions": Third, their "mutual assistance": Applying all this to pride, Hume argues that the pleasant sensation of pride, directed at ourselves, naturally tends to be called up when something naturally related to ourselves produces a pleasant sensation of its own.

These indirect passions are thus the product of the "double relation of impressions and ideas". Hume completes his account with five "limitations".

First, in order for pride or humility to be produced, the relation of ideas must be a relatively close one. Second, because our judgments are strongly influenced by "comparison", this relation must apply only to ourselves or a few others.

Third, the cause of pride or humility must be something evident to ourselves and others. Fourth, this cause must be a long-lasting one.

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Fifth, general rules have a strong influence on our passions, leading us to overlook occasional anomalies. Sections 7—10[ edit ] In the next three sections, Hume puts his account to the test by examining three causes of pride and humility: First, the qualities of the mind: Here Hume's main point is that, whatever the true nature of moral evaluation, whether it is a matter of innate moral psychology Hume's own viewor instead self-interest and cultural training the view of Hobbes and Mandevillehis account will hold up.

For, on either theory, virtues produce a pleasant sensation of their own and vices a painful sensation of their own. Next come the qualities of the body: Here Hume's main point is that the beauty or deformity of something's structure is nothing more than its power to produce pleasure or pain in us.

To the objection that though health and sickness produce pleasure and pain in us, they are not typically sources of pride or humility, he recalls that these passions require a long-lasting cause related only to ourselves or a few others—thus a long record of exceptionally poor health can in fact be a source of shame.

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Finally, Hume examines the qualities of external objects related to us. Though the natural relation of resemblance has little influence, he explains, external objects do not cause pride or humility without some relation of contiguity or causation—a fact he takes to confirm his overall account.

After a few minor illustrations, Hume explains why pride in one's ancestors is magnified when the family enjoys uninterrupted possession of land, and when it is passed down from male to male both of the conditions, he claims, serve to strengthen the relation of ideas.

Hume devotes an entire section to "property and riches". His account easily accommodates property: But it is more difficult to accommodate riches: For Hume's earlier account of causation eliminated the distinction between power and the exercise of power, as well as the very idea of an unexercised power—and how can I take pride in mere coins and paper without such an idea?

Hume finds two ways for something like unexercised power to influence our passions: Hume finishes by noting the pride we take in power over others, a pride enhanced by comparing our condition to theirs thus humans are prouder to own other humans than to own sophisticated machinery.Theodicy: Essays on the Goodness of God the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil [Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Austin Farrer, E.

M. Huggard] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Theodicy tries to justify the apparent imperfections of the world by claiming that it is optimal among all possible worlds.

It must be the best . Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.. The questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and science that examines human nature .

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After by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt, London, Rowman & Littlefield,

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