Your very silence shows you agree. Euripides Click to tweet Never miss a good chance to shut up.
Lecture 8 The New Intellectual Order: Man, Nature and Society It can be said that philosophy is a mirror of the age in which it was conceived and expressed.
Philosophers speculate on the character of the universe, nature, God, man, morals, happiness, knowledge, and a hundred other things. The manner in which each philosopher answers these questions is colored by their method of approaching problems, by their premises, by their world view, in a word, by their history.
In the Middle Ages, Ptolemaic geocentrismmodified as it was by centuries of Jewish and Christian thought, prevailed as a world view. We have already identified this world view with the convenient label, Christian matrix. God was the personal anthropomorphic deity of the Old and New Testament.
Theology took its seat as "the queen of the sciences," and the chief interest of philosophers was the way of salvation in the world to come. Nature was conceived as the handiwork of God, created and ordered according to the account in the Holy Scriptures.
Man's physical characteristics were not seriously considered except as they related to the soul and salvation. The moral problem was evaluated in terms of righteous and sinful conduct, the former being obedience to God's will, the latter its violation.
Happiness was projected into the world to come.
The earth was a prison from which man would eventually escape and find salvation. The outlook, the world view, was clearly other-worldly. Even learned men knew little of the world outside of the Mediterranean.
Knowledge of world was local and became a dominant trait of social life. However, intellectual developments between the 12th and 17th centuries shattered this Medieval matrix.
As science revealed more of the extent and workings of the physical universe, the God of the Judeo-Christian tradition became less compatible with the emergent picture of the cosmos and the laws of nature.
Inductive science slowly overcame deductive logic. The kingdom of man challenged the kingdom of God. Nature came to be regarded as a complicated and impressive affair. Simple biblical explanations of the cosmos and Nature were no longer satisfied the best minds of Europe.
God was portrayed as a law-giving and law-abiding being but natural causes were sought to explain the workings of the natural world. Man was still believed to possess an immortal soul. But the natural philosophers were no longer willing to let man pass merely as the image of God.
Among advanced thinkers, morality was gradually divorced from the supernatural conception of sin and related to behavior on this earth and its effects upon the individual and society.
Some of the more secular trends in humanism dared to defend happiness in the here and now. A new optimism regarding the future of man came into being and helped to produce the notion that man was indeed a progressive being and that perfectibility was perhaps possible in the City of Man.
The exploration of lands outside Europe brought new information, revealed new and diverse ways of life, stimulated curiosity and developed the comparative approach towards customs and institutions.
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|Michel de Montaigne - Wikipedia||By love I mean a noble and sensuous passion, absorbing the energies of the soul, fulfilling destiny, and reducing all that has gone before it to the level of a mere prelude. The indigenous nature of the soul|
A new world view was the result. This lecture highlights the diverse thoughts of this new world view as it found itself mirrored in the thoughts of a variety of philosophers. As such, this lecture provides several "windows" into the past.
Giordano Bruno, We have seen that Copernicus overthrew the Ptolemaic theory of the universe by proving it to be heliocentric rather than geocentric see Lecture 6.
But Copernicus kept the old astronomy by retaining the system of spheres and epicycles. Copernicus had little understanding of the plurality of worlds or universes or of the free motion of the heavenly bodies in space.
Bruno was born at Nola, near Naples, in southern Italy. At an early age he entered the Dominican order in Naples. Charged with heresy inBruno fled the convent and the Dominicans and traveled widely across Europe.
His spirit was in rebellion against the more reactionary aspects of Catholicism, while his Catholic antecedents made many Protestants suspicious of him. Therefore, Bruno was not entirely welcome in either camp. This is especially important to recognize since his short life spans the period in which Catholics and Protestants were engaged in heated battle.
However, Bruno was honored by scholars and he taught at many important centers of learning, among them Toulouse, Paris, Oxford and Wittenberg.
He made the mistake of returning to Italywas betrayed by one of his pupils in Venice, and turned over to the Inquisition.Michel de Montaigne: Michel de Montaigne, French writer whose Essais (Essays) established a new literary form. In his Essays he wrote one of the most captivating and intimate self-portraits ever given, on a par with Augustine’s and Rousseau’s.
Living, as he did, in the second half of the 16th century, Montaigne . time quotes, hope quotes, wisdom quotes.
The Best Silence Quotes Ever. Go to table of contents.
Silence is a source of great strength. Lao Tzu. There was a brief silence. I think I heard snow falling.
Lecture 8 The New Intellectual Order: Man, Nature and Society: It can be said that philosophy is a mirror of the age in which it was conceived and expressed. — The most comprehensive (nearly quotations) yet selective collection of insightful quotations on CHARACTER, REPUTATION & CHARACTER EDUCATION compiled by Michael Josephson who highlighted his favorites in bold.
Michel de Montaigne, one of the foremost writers of the French Renaissance and the originator of the genre of the essay, wrote on subjects ranging from friendship . Funny Quotes about Life. Welcome to these Funny Quotes about Life.
Let these Funny Life Quotes give you a new insight into the inspirational and the funny in life.