She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normanswho traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, and her first husband had been the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. One potential explanation is his general courtesy to a member of his extended family; another is that he was starting to consider how to end the war peacefully, and saw this as a way of building a relationship with Henry.
He was as much concerned with his empire in France as he was with England. He married Eleanor of Aquitaine in and was crowned king in His children included the future kings Richardwho would later lead many battles, and John. Although he was King of Englandhe never learnt the English language because his family had come over from Normandy in They spoke Norman French.
Henry was intelligent and well educated. He spoke Latin fluently, which was the language of educated people in Europe at that time. All documents and laws were written in Latin. Henry was unhappy with how the law was not applied the same across England, and his changes helped to develop the common law.
This was the way that laws would be applied in the same way in all towns and villages, so everyone was treated the same and with fairness.
To do this, Henry made a number of changes: Created Judges who would travel the country and judge the cases of people accused of breaking the law. This meant that all crimes were judged by the King or his judges, and not by local people who might be biased or influenced.
Allowed judges to collect the fines from punishments of small crimes, which would be then given to the King. Created trial by jury. This meant that a number of local men, usually 12, would judge the case of someone accused of a crime.
If they believed he was guilty, he would be punished, and if they believed he was innocent, he would be set free.
Trial by Jury became a safer alternative to Ordeals which could result in injury or death. Inafter Pope Innocent III banned priests from overseeing ordeals, Jury trials became the most common way of judging criminals.
One of the big events that happened while Henry ruled was the killing of Thomas Becket. Henry and Becket were old friends who found themselves in dispute once Becket became the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Their dispute was over the role of the Church in England. Becket was trying to increase the power of church courts that had lost power when Henry had made major changes to the legal system. Four knights killed Becket in Canterbury Cathedral.
Legend say that the knights had heard Henry say, "Who will rid me of this turbulent rebellious priest? Young Henry never ruled and is not in the list of the kings and queens of England; he became known as Henry the Young King so he was not confused with his nephew Henry III. Henry and his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, had five sons and three daughters: This led to conflict between Henry on the one side and his wife and sons on the other.
Henry had constant struggles and battles against the French King Louis VII of Francebut also many conflicts with his own wife and sons.
His legitimate children were, he said, "the real bastards". First Richard and young Henry fought their father for possession of lands they had been promised. They were defeated, and fined heavily. This Henry also won, just. Richard finally defeated Henry in a battle for Anjou Henry II (5 March – 6 July ), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany Parents: Empress Matilda, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou.
Henry II of England (March 5, – July 6, ) ruled as King of England (–), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France.
Henry was the first of. Henry II Parentage and Early Life. Arguably one of the most effective Kings ever to wear the English crown and the first of the great Plantagenet dynasty, the future Henry II was born at Le Mans, Anjou on 5th March, Henry II of England (March 5, – July 6, ) ruled as King of England (–), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France.
Henry was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England and. Henry Plantagenet: A Biography of Henry II of England [Richard Barber] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Henry II is the most imposing figure among the medieval kings of England. His fiefs and domains extended from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean/5(6).
Plantagenet Ancestry of Seventeenth-Century Colonists: The Descent from the Later Plantagenet Kings of England, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, of Emigrants from England and Wales.