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The dichotomy[ edit ] The Apollonian Nietzsche dionysian and apollonian is defined by its reliance on reasonorder, control, individuality, and sober thought, and seeks to bring philosophic order to the universe. Nietzsche, being most concerned with art in his treatment of the concept, identified the visual arts as embodying an Apollonian force.
More broadly, modern science with its scientific method and methodological naturalism could be seen as an Apollonian force, deriving orderly laws and principles to approximate, as closely as possible, the operation of the universe. The Age of Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, science, and the power of thought, was driven by a decidedly Apollonian philosophy.
Nietzsche refers to philosophy itself as Apollonian.
The Dionysian force is that which embraces mysticism, emotion, chaos, "world harmony," and "collective unity. Another example of a Dionysian philosophy is Romanticismthe counter-Enlightenment movement that emphasized human intuition and opposed the scientific rationalization of nature.
For Paglia, much of Western culture can be understood as a complicated interplay and struggle between the Apollonian and the Dionysian. She associates Apollonian with rationality, celibacy, intellectualism, restraint, and goal-oriented progress; the Dionysian or Chthonian is associated with irrationality, ecstasy, ignorance, anti-intellectualism, sloth, sexual indulgence, and unrestrained procreation.
Paglia associates Dionysian principles with Pagan religions and Apollonian principles with Judeo-Christianity noting, for example, that Paganism celebrates that use of images in worship while Christianity and Judaism tend to discourage such images Catholicism and the Orthodox churches are exceptions, being partly outgrowths of Roman paganism.
But she takes the dichotomy one step further than Nietzsche, by associating the Apollonian with men and the Dionysian with women, and then hypothesizing that all progress in civilization was made by Apollonian forces, viz. Paglia argues that historical fact of male domination is arts, politics and science is ultimately rooted in sexual anxiety.
Feeling the risk of engulfment by female nature, men are compelled to emphasize their distinct identity with creative and intellectual pursuits. Women, in contrast, have traditionally devoted most of their mental and physical energy to pregnancy, nursing, childrearing, etc, and have thus lacked the time and energy that men have been able to devote to other pursuits.
As evidence of her thesis, Paglia makes several key observations: Minoan Crete [note 1]. Paglia agrees that women have often been unjustly excluded from some careers and fields of study, but nonetheless argues that her thesis accounts for male domination of arts and culture more accurately than the strong Marxist and social constructionist claims of second-wave feminists which, she notes, tend to ignore or denigrate basic science and biology: Women have been discouraged from genres such as sculpture that require studio training or expensive materials.
But in philosophy, mathematics, and poetry, the only materials are pen and paper. Male conspiracy cannot explain all female failures. I am convinced that, even without restrictions, there still would have been no female Pascal[John] Milton, or Kant.
Genius is not checked by social obstacles:Is the Apollonian bad? It’s not bad at all, but Nietzsche knew that we need both. The loss of the Dionysian in drama and society is, therefore, a loss to our own ability to be complete people.
Arrogance and excess are considered the essentially hostile daemons of the non-Apollonian sphere, therefore characteristic of the pre-Apollonian period, the age of the Titans, and of the world beyond the Apollonian, that is, the barbarian world.
The Apollonian and Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept, or also a dichotomy, based on Apollo and Dionysus in Greek initiativeblog.com Western philosophical and literary figures have invoked this dichotomy in critical and creative works, most notably Friedrich Nietzsche and later followers..
In Greek mythology, Apollo and Dionysus are both sons of Zeus. Apollo versus Dionysus Friedrich Nietzsche initiativeblog.com 1. We will have achieved much for the study of aesthetics when we come, not merely to a logical understanding, but also to the immediately certain apprehension of the fact that the further development of art is bound up with the duality of the Apollonian and the Dionysian, just.
Alexander Gatherer Cardiff University * The opposing concepts of the Dionysian (hereon DI) and Apollonian (hereon AP) are central themes within Nietzsche’s first major work, The Birth of Tragedy (hereon BT).
His contemplation of such opposing forces of nature are primarily used to analyse Greek culture in general, and Greek art in particular, stating that. “Apollonian” and “Dionysian” are terms used by Friedrich Nietzsche in The Birth of Tragedy to designate the two central principles in Greek initiativeblog.com - Free download as .