Primary research is the process of gathering data directly from original sources as opposed to collecting information from research that others have done. Information can be obtained by observation, by mail and telephone surveys, or by face-to-face interviews. With proper care to eliminate bias from your methodology, you can obtain accurate results to address the issues you seek to clarify. Setting the Stage Before you begin the data gathering process, you must first decide how to conduct your research, what observations to make, what questions to ask, and how to be certain that your process is unbiased.
Artistic research[ edit ] The controversial trend of artistic teaching becoming more academics-oriented is leading to artistic research being accepted as the primary mode of enquiry in art as in the case of other disciplines. As such, it is similar to the social sciences in using qualitative research and intersubjectivity as tools to apply measurement and critical analysis.
It is based on artistic practices, methods, and criticality. Through presented documentation, the insights gained shall be placed in a context.
This may be factual, historical, or background research. Background research could include, for example, geographical or procedural research. Patricia Leavy addresses eight arts-based research ABR genres: Documentary research Steps in conducting research[ edit ] Research is often conducted using the hourglass model structure of research.
The major steps in conducting research are: Often, a literature review is conducted in a given subject area before a research question is identified. A gap in the current literature, as identified by a researcher, then engenders a research question. The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.
The hypothesis is the supposition to be tested. The researcher s collects data to test the hypothesis. The researcher s then analyzes and interprets the data via a variety of statistical methods, engaging in what is known as empirical research.
The results of the data analysis in rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis are then reported and evaluated. At the end, the researcher may discuss avenues for further research. However, some researchers advocate for the reverse approach: The reverse approach is justified by the transactional nature of the research endeavor where research inquiry, research questions, research method, relevant research literature, and so on are not fully known until the findings have fully emerged and been interpreted.
Rudolph Rummel says, " It is only when a range of tests are consistent over many kinds of data, researchers, and methods can one have confidence in the results. Maurice Hilleman is credited with saving more lives than any other scientist of the 20th century.
This process takes three main forms although, as previously discussed, the boundaries between them may be obscure: Exploratory researchwhich helps to identify and define a problem or question. Constructive researchwhich tests theories and proposes solutions to a problem or question.
Empirical researchwhich tests the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence. There are two major types of empirical research design:The primary research process is quite similar to the writing process, and you can draw upon your knowledge of the writing process to un- derstand the steps involved in a primary research project.
Primary research involves the collection of original data that addresses a specific research question. Distinguishing between primary and secondary research can . What are Cochrane's Plain Language Summaries?
Plain Language Summaries (PLSs) help people to understand and interpret research findings and are included in all Cochrane Reviews.
The Library of Congress offers classroom materials and professional development to help teachers effectively use primary sources from the Library's vast digital collections in their teaching. A listing of psychological research being conducted online. Learn about the Presidential election process, including the Electoral College, caucuses and primaries, and the national conventions.