Victim Rights and Restitution in Sentencing Essay Victim Rights and Restitution in Sentencing Essay The role of the victim in the criminal justice system has evolved over the past 30 to 40 years. Historically, victims of a crime have held no special place in the criminal justice process other than as witnesses to the event.
Work not for a reward; but never cease to do thy work. The Bhagavad Gita2: Michel de Montaigne, Essays, "That our actions should be judged by our intentions," I: Cohen, Penguin, p.
The State of Nature has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one: And Reason, which is that Law, teaches all Mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions.
Hobbes characterizes his completely empirical way of thinking very remarkably by the fact that, in his book De Principiis Geometrarum, he denies the whole of really pure mathematics, and obstinately asserts that the point has extension and the line breadth.
Yet we cannot show him a point without extension or a line without breadth; hence we can just as little explain to him the a priori nature of mathematics as the a priori nature of right, because he pays no heed to any knowledge that is not empirical. He grokked that this was one of the critical cusps in the growth of a being wherein contemplation must bring forth right action in order to permit further growth.
You see everything in black and white! Jack Ryan [Harrison Ford]: Not black and white Ritter, right and wrong! Clear and Present Danger [Paramount Pictures, ] Ethical goods are goods in relation to persons -- goods for persons. There are multiple persons, and these are divided generally into self and others.
Ethical goods thus fall into two categories: All ethical goods are autonomously defined by selves i.
Thomas Jeffersonin a letter fromexpresses this nicely: But I consider our relations with others as constituting the boundaries of morality To ourselves, in strict language, we can owe no duties, obligation requiring also two parties.
Self-love, therefore, is no part of morality. Indeed it is exactly its counterpart. It is the sole antagonist of virtue, leading us constantly by our propensities to self-gratification in violation of our moral duties to others. By contrast, we find Immanuel Kant saying, " It is a good, but a non-moral good.
Non-moral goods are matters of ethical hortatives rather than imperatives, as explained in relation to the polynomic theory of value.
Kant is probably under the impression that self-preservation is a duty, and so suicide a sin, because of Christian ethics, not because of the eternal forms of reason to which he appeals. Greek and Roman moralists rather admired certain kinds of suicide.
But they were pagans.
Even Dante excuses the suicide of virtuous pagans, such as Cato the Younger. If suicide were morally wrongful, the only effective sanction against it would be of the sort threatened by Christianity: Punishment, however, only provides a prudential, not a moral, motive for goodness, as Kant well understood himself.
The character of the action itself must be wrongful and the moral duty unconditioned. Yet is Kant himself going to require the hero to preserve his own life when its sacrifice might save his honor, his fellows, or his Nation? Did Jesus have a duty to preserve his life when its Sacrifice would Save mankind?
Even if Kant did not believe in Christian Redemption, it is hard to imagine him being able to sustain an argument that self-preservation is required in all circumstances. On the other hand, we now tend to see suicide as the result of the evils that may drive a person to it. The evils are then the problem, not the person, and the remedy for attempted suicides is to address those.
Also, when we see suicide running in families, we realize that the component of mental difficulties may be significant. Confusion about moral and non-moral goods, goods for selves and good for others, produces characteristic fallacies, as follows: The fallacies of egoism are: Ayn Rand sounds like this, and many earlier moralists, such as Kant, posit a category of "duties to self," which Jefferson properly denies above.
Shortly after self-preservation, Kant gives us an even more problematic example of egoistic moralism:Restorative justice, therefore, advocates restitution to the victim by the offender rather than retribution by the state against the offender. Instead of continuing and escalating the cycle of violence, it tries to restore relationships and stop the violence..
This sample Restorative Justice Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research initiativeblog.com you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics.
This sample research paper on restorative justice features. For more than a year I engaged in the visual and oral analog to “fasting.” Fasters discipline themselves not to eat. I chose not to comment on the election campaigns.
A digital word-search will find no mention in 50 Monday Sightings of any presidential candidate or party. The choice was an. This page offers VOMA's Restorative Justice FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions).
Victim Offender Mediation Association (VOMA), an international membership association, supports and assists people and communities working at restorative models of justice.
VOMA provides resources, training, and technical assistance in victim-offender mediation, conferencing, circles, and related restorative justice. Essay Restorative Justice System Of Criminal Justice.
Restorative justice was a system of criminal justice which focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community at large. The Fallacies of Egoism and Altruism, and the Fundamental Principle of Morality (after Kant and Nelson) I have not done wrong.
The "Negative Confession" or Protestation of Ani, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day, The Complete Papyrus of Ani, Featuring Integrated Text and Full-Color Images, translated by Dr.