The debate on the standardization and adaptation of marketing strategy is not new, but the researchers not yet came to an agreement that which strategy is better to serve the international market. The aim of this research paper is to evaluate the previous researches and evaluate that which international marketing strategy is better.
The other argues for the need for adaptation to fit the unique dimensions of each local market. It identifies the two approaches as coexisting and sub- sequently distils the findings of an extended literature review to determine the degree and nature of the country-of- origin effect in the process.
The conclusions are that the effect has a universal and diachronic existence, though its manifestation into actual consumer attitudes and preferences varies considerably. The dissimilarity of consumer behav- iour both between and within individual markets is a result of specific combinations of collective and personal parame- ters.
The findings are extrapolated and ultimately integrated in the Internationalisation Factors Model to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the internationalisation process.
The conclusions are that their business practices, increase profitability and the effect has a universal and diachronic existence, overcome any problems related with the saturation though its manifestation into actual consumer atti- of existing markers, expand their operations to over- tudes and preferences varies considerably.
The dis- seas markets. Others, ises — and threats — of epochal change. This confu- point out the difficulties in using a standardised sion, change, and complexity are even greater within approach, and therefore support tailoring and market the international world-wide marketing environ- adaptation.
However, literature quoting practical ment. Vignali comment that the debate on this This research aims to investigate the practical com- came under discussion as early aswith Elin- plex relationship of the two extreme approaches der considering the idea with regard to world adaptation and standardisation and suggest meth- wide advertising.
This will increase the understanding and Roostal and Fatt Buzzell wid- knowledge of the integrated approach and develop ened the debate by stating that it would encompass not models to guide multinational companies compete just advertising, but the whole of the marketing mix.
Subsequently, the research will among nations have led a multinational company to view and design its marketing planning in each country strictly as a local problem. In addition there are standardising the marketing mix elements. The most important source of constraints by across various markets and countries.
They believe far, and the most difficult to measure, are cultural that the world is becoming increasingly more simi- differences rooted in history, education, religion, lar in both environmental and customer require- values and attitudes, manners and customs, aesthet- ments, and no matter where they are consumers ics as well as differences in taste, needs and wants, have the same demands.
As they argue, standardisa- economics and legal systems. Supporters of this tion of the marketing mix elements and the creation approach believe that multinational companies of a single strategy for the entire global market should have to find out how they must adjust an promise lower costs as well as consistency with entire marketing strategy and, including how they customers.
Altering and adjusting the marketing mix Levitt argues that well-managed companies determinants and marketing strategy are essential have moved from emphasis on customising items to and vital to suit local tastes, meet special market offering globally standardised products that are ad- needs and consumers non-identical requirements vanced, functional, reliable and low priced.
He also Yip, ; Koudelova and Whitelock, ; La- argues that multinational companies that concen- roche et al. Only global companies will Both schools of thought are sensible, logical and achieve long-term success by concentrating on what coherent, highlighting the advantages and benefits everyone wants rather than worrying about the de- that a multinational company could gain by acquir- tails of what everyone thinks they might like.
Ac- ing such an approach.Innovative Marketing, Volume 3, Issue 4, Demetris Vrontis (Cyprus), Alkis Thrassou (Cyprus) Adaptation vs. standardisation in international marketing – the country-of-origin effect Abstract The literature on international marketing presents a confrontation between two mainstream schools of thought regard- ing international marketing.
Purpose – The debate about global integration (standardisation) versus responsiveness (adaptation) has recently been supplemented with perspectives that emphasise regionalisation. And while the discussion has also been extended from manufacturing to services, there are specific sectors and emergent topics that have not yet received much attention.
Standardisation versus adaptation issues in International Marketing () Ref: market What differentiates the proponents of standardisation from the proponents of adaptation is how homogenous they perceive consumers and markets across different countries to be. II. CONCLUSIONS The frequent subject in international marketing in whether companies should plan for a standardized or customized marketing approach is extensively debated in the academic literature and is a concern for every multinational company and marketing persons.
Standardisation versus Adaptation in a Globalisation context Challenge This is the challenge facing primarily multinational firms whether to standardise their local offering or adapt/localise it for the market they are selling into.
Jopurnal of Accounting J Marketing o u r n a l o f A c c o u nti n g & M a r k e t i n g ISS: Haron, Account ar, The discussion on globalization versus Localization has been ragging for over four decades and it appears to be far-from-over . the general concept under which both adaptation and customization are characterized [1.