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Officials in some school districts facing growing student populations and little or no money for building new facilities are looking at year-round education YRE as a possible solution. By revising the traditional nine-month calendar, districts can fit more students into a smaller building, thus saving millions of dollars in new construction costs.
Notwithstanding the recent interest, YRE remains a novel concept to most educators, and objective information regarding year-round calendars is scarce. Schools usually adopt YRE for its cost-saving features, but a year-round calendar affects all aspects of a school, from what classes are taught to how the administration is run.
This Digest looks not at the budgetary considerations of YRE, but at its implications for the educational program. In most instances, year-round schools operate on calendars that are reworkings of a traditional, nine-month calendar. Year-round students attend the same number of days as their counterpartsexcept that these days are arranged differently.
The most popular YRE calendar is the plan, where students attend school for 45 days and then go on vacation for There are numerous other types of schedules as well, but the common factor in all YRE calendars is that students have several short vacations all through the year, rather than one three-month summer break Ballinger and others A few year-round schools have all their students on the same instructional and vacation schedule a singletrack calendar.
Most, however, operate on a multitrack calendar, which groups students onto tracks that have different instructional and vacation schedules. These tracks are stepped so that there is always at least one track on vacation Ballinger and others.
The multitrack calendar allows a school to enroll more students than the school building was designed to hold. A school in a building built for students can enroll as many as 1, students on a four-track calendar Quinlan and others Because of this, the multitrack option is attractive to schools where population increases are straining existing resources, especially in urban areas in the western states where the overwhelming majority of year-round schools are located Carriedo and Goren The primary educational benefit of YRE is that it facilitates continuous student learning.
According to a study done for the New York Board of Regentsstudents forget much of what they learned in school while on a long summer break. This is particularly true of disadvantaged students and students for whom English is a second language.
With YRE, less is forgotten over the shorter vacations, and teachers spend less time reviewing Ballinger and others. The flexibility of a year-round calendar also offers several benefits.
For example, schools can offer intersession programs where students participate in advanced, remedial, and enrichment classes White This flexibility can also help migrant students, who are at a serious disadvantage because they are in and out of school several times each year NYBR.
Allowing migrant families to choose their children's vacation schedules may help to keep them in school Ballinger and others. Teachers can benefit from YRE's flexibility when schools allow them to work during the intersessions and earn more money Ballinger and others.
There also are reports that teachers and students are less likely to burn out and be absent on a YRE calendar Quinlan and others. It goes without saying that YRE calendars require that educators revamp curriculums. The degree of change depends on what system a school had before that is, semesters or quarterswhat kind of calendar is adopted, and whether a school is an elementary or a high school White.
At the elementary level, where students are usually with the same teacher all year, YRE tends to be less disruptive than at the secondary level White. However, in multitrack schools, there are always students and teachers who have to change rooms, as often as four times a year Carriedo and Goren.
Some schools have to combine students from several grades into one class, which some teachers consider to be "a dilution to the quality of instruction" Quinlan and others.
When YRE is instituted at the secondary level, where teachers are divided into departments and courses are offered individually, curriculum changes become more complicated.
Secondary schools usually have to revise their graduation requirements and break up sequenced courses White. Multitrack secondary schools experience major curriculum changes. While more than one track may be in the same term, all the tracks are never in school at the same time or at the same point in the school year White.
This creates a problem with advanced, elective, and specialized courses; multitrack schools are often forced to offer the course several times to small groups or have students cross-track for special courses Quinlan and others. Despite the current interest in YRE, there has been no definitive study done that shows how YRE affects student achievement.
In the words of Carriedo and Goren, while studies rarely show that YRE lessens achievement, "research findings are mixed and inconclusive. Two studies indicated that YRE lowered achievement, but overall, research revealed "no significant differences between the two types of schedules" Merino A study done for the California State Department of Education by Quinlan and associates sheds further light on the enigmatic relation between YRE and achievement.
Research revealed that California year-round schools have improved but consistently score below traditional schools, even traditional schools with similar student populations.
Additionally, when singletrack and multitrack schools were considered separately, the data showed that singletrack schools perform better than their traditional counterparts, while multitrack schools perform worse.
Mazzarellain trying to explain these types of results, points out that changing calendars and schedules will not improve achievement until educators learn to use existing schedules more effectively.
Although YRE has the potential to solve budgetary, population, and even academic problems, YRE affects every part of a school. There are myriad things for administrators to consider, and some issues, such as how YRE affects families, are not discussed until there is already a problem.
Here is a brief list of some considerations that might affect a district's decision to implement or not to implement YRE:Persuasive Essay Topics. Search the site GO. For Students & Parents. Homework Help Writing Essays Tools & Tips Learning Styles & Skills Study Methods Time Management Writing Research Papers Year-round school is a bad idea.
High school campuses should be guarded by police officers. Feb 21, · Hi all yahoo answerers, I am again needing help on writing my essay. This time I am writing a strongly persuasive essay on whether year-round schooling is a good/fair idea or initiativeblog.com: Resolved.
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Keeping kids in school year round will not help kids in anyway, shape or form. Furthermore, having grown up as the oldest of 7 kids, and homeschooled at that, I can honestly say that teachers deserve a break during the summer.
Year-round school in the United States is neither a new concept nor an unusual one. Traditional school calendars and year-round schedules both provide students with about days in the classroom. But instead of taking off much of the summertime, year-round school programs take a series of shorter breaks throughout the year.
Dillard Elementary, New Vision School to try two-schools-in-one. Beginning for the academic year, the New Vision School of Science, Math and Technology will move into the Dillard facility and will lead both a year-round and traditional calendar school program under one roof.